Table of Contents

Definition of Research1
Characteristics of Quantitative Research2
Method of Quantitative Research2
Advantages of Quantitative Research3
Limitations of Quantitative Research3
Qualitative Research4
Characteristics of Qualitative Research4
Common Approaches and Techniques in Qualitative Research5
Advantages of Qualitative Reasearch5
Limitation of Qualitative Reasearch6
Variables in Research7
Independent Variables in Research8
20 Examples of Independent Variables with Levels Related with Each of the Variables9
Dependent Variables in Research with Examples10
50 Examples of Independent Variables Paired with Relevant Dependent Variables11
Research Hypotheses and Characteristics of a Researchable Hypothesis12
50 Examples of Hypotheses with Independent and Dependent Variables13
Types of Hypotheses – Null Hypothesis (HO), Alternative Hypothesis, Directional Hypothesis,
Non- Directional Hypothesis etc.
Introduction of a Research Project15
Examples of Introduction of a Research Project, Research Problem, Research Objectives and Significance of Study16-17
Choosing a Research Topic18
Sourcing of Research Topics and Research Proposal19-20
Analysis and Presentation of Data20
Summary of Findings, Recommendations and Suggestions for Future Research21
Research Abstract with Examples and Research Designs22
Validity of Research Designs23
Historical Research Design24
Survey Research Design25
Causal-Comparative and Ex-Post-Facto Research Design26-27
Experimental Research Design and Face Validity28-31
Content Validity, Construct Validity, Internal Validity, Statistical Conclusion Validity32-33
External Validity34-35
Criterion-Related Validity36-37
Comparison of Variables in Research Design38
Manipulation of Variables39-40
Control of Variables in Research Design41
Extrinsic Factors in Research Design42-43
Intrinsic Factors in Research Design44
Generalization in Research Design45
Statement of Problem46
Research Objectives47
Literature Review48
Relevance of Research49
Qualifications Require for a Research Crew50
Research Budget51
Research Schedule52
Project Management in Research53
Bibliography and Appendices in Research54-55
Evaluating Research Process56
Research Questions and Hypotheses57
Questionnaire Design58
Contruction of Questionnaire59
Validation of Constructed Questionnaire60-61
Administration of Questionnaire62
Characteristics of a Good Questionnaire63
Statement of Hypothesis64
Types of Hypotheses65
Qualities of a Good Hypothesis66
Sources of Hypotheses67
Hypotheses Testing68
Hypotheses Testing Tools69
Non-Parametric Tools71
Parametric Tools72
Data and Sources of Data75-76
Method of Data Collection77
Data Analysis and Presentation – Coding of Data, Data Analysis Tools, Tools for Data Presentation78-81
Linear Correlation Coefficients82-83
Ranking Correlation Coefficients84
Spearman’s Raking Correlation85-87
Partial Correlation Coefficients88-89
Simple Linear Regression90-93
Interpretation of Regression94
Regression Vs Causation95
Regression Vs Correlation96-99
Population in Research100
Sample in a Research101
Sampling Techniques102
Probabilistic Sampling Techniques103
Non-Probabilistic Sampling Techniques104
Sample Size105